openvidu-mvc-node

Check it on GitHub

A secure OpenVidu sample app with a Node backend and a traditional MVC frontend. With regard to the use of OpenVidu, it is identical to openvidu-js-node. This tutorial is intended for developers who feel more comfortable with MVC web architectures for their frontends. Embedded JavaScript is the template engine of choice for this tutorial.

Understanding this tutorial

OpenVidu is composed by the modules displayed on the image above.

  • openvidu-browser: JavaScript library for the browser. It allows you to manage your video-calls straight away from your clients
  • openvidu-node-client: NPM package to easily get the necessary params (sessionId's and tokens) from openvidu-server. Quick alternative to REST API
  • openvidu-server: Java application that controls Kurento Media Server
  • Kurento Media Server: server that handles low level operations of media flow transmissions

You will only have to make use of openvidu-browser and openvidu-node-client to get this sample app working

Running this tutorial

1) Clone the repo and checkout to version v1.1.0:

git clone https://github.com/OpenVidu/openvidu-tutorials.git
cd openvidu-tutorials && git checkout v1.1.0

2) You will need node and NPM to execute the app. You can install them with:

sudo apt-get install nodejs
sudo apt-get install npm

3) Run the tutorial with the following commands. They will install the NPM dependencies and will execute server.js server passing two arguments: "localhost:8443" as the URL where openvidu-server will be listening and "MY_SECRET" as the secret share with it:

cd openvidu-mvc-node
npm install
node server.js localhost:8443 MY_SECRET

4) openvidu-server and Kurento Media Server must be up and running in your development machine. The easiest way is running this Docker container which wraps both of them (you will need Docker CE):

docker run -p 8443:8443 --rm -e KMS_STUN_IP=stun.l.google.com -e KMS_STUN_PORT=19302 -e openvidu.secret=MY_SECRET openvidu/openvidu-server-kms:1.1.0

5) Go to https://localhost:5000 to test the app once the server is running. The first time you use the docker container, an alert message will suggest you accept the self-signed certificate of openvidu-server when you first try to join a video-call. To test two users in the same computer, use a standard window and an incognito window.


To learn some tips to develop with OpenVidu, check this FAQ

If you are using Windows, read this FAQ to properly run the tutorial

Understanding the code

This is a very basic web application with a pretty simple JS/HTML/CSS frontend and a straightforward Node backend built with express that serves HTML files with a MVC approach, building the templates with the help of Embedded JavaScript.

OpenVidu assumes you can identify your users so you can tell which users can connect to which video-calls, and what role (and therefore what permissions) each one of them will have in the calls. You can do this as you prefer. Here our backend will manage the users and their sessions with the easy-to-use and non-intrusive express-session API.

  • Backend: node server

    • server.js : single file which handles all operations of server. It returns HTML templates as response to HTTP requests.
  • Frontend templates: Pure JS/HTML/CSS files served by the backend, with .ejs extension to support Embedded JavaScript (/views folder)

    • index.ejs : template with the login form
    • dashboard.ejs : template with the form to join a video-call
    • session.ejs : template of the video-call itself
  • Frontend static files (/public folder)

    • openvidu-browser-VERSION.js : openvidu-browser library. You don't have to manipulate this file
    • style.css : some CSS classes to style the templates

Let's describe the code following this scenario: a user logs in to the app and connects to the video-call "TUTORIAL", where he publishes his webcam. A second user will connect to the same video-call just after that and publish its own webcam. Both of them will leave the call after a while.


1) User logs in

At path / a login form will be displayed:

The form will execute a POST operation to path /dashboard whenever "Log in" button is clicked, passing the username and the password:

<form class="form-group jumbotron" action="/dashboard" method="post">
    <p>
        <label>User</label>
        <input class="form-control" type="text" name="user" required="true"></input>
    </p>
    <p>
        <label>Pass</label>
        <input class="form-control" type="password" name="pass" required="true"></input>
    </p>
    <p class="text-center">
        <button class="btn btn-lg btn-info" type="submit">Log in</button>
    </p>
</form>

server.js at /dashboard first checks if the user is already logged (maybe he has just refreshed /dashboard page), and if so it just redirects to the dashboard itself. If the user is actually logging in, the method checks that the params are correct and if so sets a new express-session for the newly logged user (adding a loggedUser property with its username in the req.session object). Finally it returns dashboard.ejs template:

app.post('/dashboard', dashboardController);
app.get('/dashboard', dashboardController);

function dashboardController(req, res) {

    // Check if the user is already logged in
    if (isLogged(req.session)) {
        // User is already logged. Immediately return dashboard
        user = req.session.loggedUser;
        res.render('dashboard.ejs', {
            user: user
        });
    } else {
        // User wasn't logged and wants to

        // Retrieve params from POST body
        var user = req.body.user;
        var pass = req.body.pass;

        if (login(user, pass)) { // Correct user-pass
            // Validate session and return OK 
            // Value stored in req.session allows us to identify the user in future requests
            req.session.loggedUser = user;
            res.render('dashboard.ejs', {
                user: user
            });
        } else { // Wrong user-pass
            // Invalidate session and return index template
            req.session.destroy();
            res.redirect('/');
        }
    }
}

2) User connects to "TUTORIAL" video-call

dashboard.ejs template will display a form asking for the video-call to connect and the nickname the user wants to have in it. So our 'publisher1' user would write TUTORIAL in "Session" field:

The form will execute a POST operation to path /session whenever "Join!" button is clicked, passing the nickname and the session name:

<form class="form-group" action="/session" method="post">
    <p>
        <label>Participant</label>
        <input class="form-control" type="text" name="data" required="true"></input>
    </p>
    <p>
        <label>Session</label>
        <input class="form-control" type="text" name="sessionname" required="true"></input>
    </p>
    <p class="text-center">
        <button class="btn btn-lg btn-success" type="submit">Join!</button>
    </p>
</form>

When server.js receives a request at /session path is when things get interesting. First of all there are some important attributes in this class we must mention:

// Environment variable: URL where our OpenVidu server is listening
var OPENVIDU_URL = process.argv[2];
// Environment variable: secret shared with our OpenVidu server
var OPENVIDU_SECRET = process.argv[3];

// OpenVidu object to ask openvidu-server for sessionId and token
var OV = new OpenVidu(OPENVIDU_URL, OPENVIDU_SECRET);

// Collection to pair session names and OpenVidu Session objects
var mapSessionNameSession = {};
// Collection to pair sessionId's (identifiers of Session objects) and tokens
var mapSessionIdTokens = {};

Rest controller method receives both params sent by the client (whatever nickname the user has chosen and "TUTORIAL" as the sessionName). First it prepares a param we will need a little further on: tokenOptions.

app.post('/session', (req, res) => {
    // Check the user is logged ... 

    // The nickname sent by the client
    var clientData = req.body.data;
    // The video-call to connect ("TUTORIAL")
    var sessionName = req.body.sessionname;

    // Role associated to this user
    var role = users.find(u => (u.user === req.session.loggedUser)).role;

    // Optional data to be passed to other users when this user connects to the video-call
    // In this case, a JSON with the value we stored in the req.session object on login
    var serverData = '{"serverData": "' + req.session.loggedUser + '"}';

    // Build tokenOptions object with the serverData and the role
    var tokenOptions = new TokenOptions.Builder()
        .data(serverData)
        .role(role)
        .build();

Just after that an if-else statement comes into play: does the session "TUTORIAL" already exist?

if (mapSessionNameSession[sessionName]) { ...

In this case it doesn't because 'publisher1' is the first user connecting to it. So we focus on the else branch:

else { // New session: return a new sessionId and a new token

    // Create a new OpenVidu Session
    var mySession = OV.createSession();

    // Get the sessionId asynchronously
    mySession.getSessionId(function (sessionId) {

        // Store the new Session in the collection of Sessions
        mapSessionNameSession[sessionName] = mySession;
        // Store a new empty array in the collection of tokens
        mapSessionIdTokens[sessionId] = [];

        // Generate a new token asynchronously with the recently created tokenOptions
        mySession.generateToken(tokenOptions, function (token) {

            // Store the new token in the collection of tokens
            mapSessionIdTokens[sessionId].push(token);

            // Return session template with all the needed attributes
            res.render('session.ejs', {
                sessionId: sessionId,
                token: token,
                nickName: clientData,
                userName: req.session.loggedUser,
                sessionName: sessionName
            });
        });
    });
}

We are almost there! Now in session.ejs JavaScript code (preceded by a tag <script>) we can init a new Session with sessionId and connect to it with token:

// Get all the attributes from the template in EJS style
var sessionId = <%- JSON.stringify(sessionId) %>;
var token = <%- JSON.stringify(token) %>;
var nickName = <%- JSON.stringify(nickName) %>;
var userName = <%- JSON.stringify(userName) %>;
var sessionName = <%- JSON.stringify(sessionName) %>;
// --- 1) Get an OpenVidu object and init a session with the retrieved sessionId ---

var OV = new OpenVidu();
var session = OV.initSession(sessionId);


// --- 2) Specify the actions when events take place ---

// On every new Stream received...
session.on('streamCreated', function (event) {

    // Subscribe to the Stream to receive it
    // HTML video will be appended to element with 'video-container' id
    var subscriber = session.subscribe(event.stream, 'video-container');

    // When the HTML video has been appended to DOM...
    subscriber.on('videoElementCreated', function (event) {

        // Add a new HTML element for the user's name and nickname just below its video
        appendUserData(event.element, subscriber.stream.connection);
    });
});

// On every Stream destroyed...
session.on('streamDestroyed', function (event) {
    // Delete the HTML element with the user's name and nickname
    removeUserData(event.stream.connection);
});


// --- 3) Connect to the session passing the retrieved token and some more data from
//         the client (in this case a JSON with the nickname chosen by the user) ---

session.connect(token, '{"clientData": "' + nickName + '"}', function (error) {

    // If the connection is successful, initialize a publisher and publish to the session
    if (!err) {

        // Here we check somehow if the user has at least 'PUBLISHER' role before
        // trying to publish its stream. Even if someone modified the client's code and
        // published the stream, it wouldn't work if the token sent in Session.connect
        // method doesn't belong to a 'PUBLIHSER' role
        if (isPublisher()) {

            // --- 4) Get your own camera stream ---

            var publisher = OV.initPublisher('video-container', {
                audio: true,
                video: true,
                quality: 'MEDIUM'
            });

            // When our HTML video has been added to DOM...
            publisher.on('videoElementCreated', function (event) {
                // Init the main video with ours and append our data
                var userData = {
                    nickName: nickName,
                    userName: userName
                };
                initMainVideo(event.element, userData);
                appendUserData(event.element, userData);
                $(event.element).prop('muted', true); // Mute local video
            });


            // --- 5) Publish your stream ---

            session.publish(publisher);

        } else {
            console.warn('You don\'t have permissions to publish');
            initMainVideoThumbnail(); // Show SUBSCRIBER message in main video
        }
    } else {
        console.warn('There was an error connecting to the session:', error.code, error.message);
    }
});

The user will now see its own video on the page. The connection to the session has completed!


3) Another user connects to the video-call

The process would be exactly the same as before until server.js executes controller at /api-sessions/get-sessionid-token. Now session 'TUTORIAL' already exists, so in the if-else statement the if branch would be the one executed:

if (mapSessionNameSession[sessionName]) {
    // Session already exists: return existing sessionId and a new token

    // Get the existing Session from the collection
    var mySession = mapSessionNameSession[sessionName];

    // Generate a new token asynchronously with the recently created tokenOptions
    mySession.generateToken(tokenOptions, function (token) {

        // Get the existing sessionId
        mySession.getSessionId(function (sessionId) {

            // Store the new token in the collection of tokens
            mapSessionIdTokens[sessionId].push(token);

            // Return session template with all the needed attributes
            res.render('session.ejs', {
                sessionId: sessionId,
                token: token,
                nickName: clientData,
                userName: req.session.loggedUser,
                sessionName: sessionName
            });
        });
    });
}

The code executed in session.ejs < script > tag would also be the same. After the Session.publish() method has been succesful, both users will be seeing each other's video, as well as the username and the nickname below it.


4) Users leave the video-call

After a while both users decide to leave the session. Apart from calling session.disconnect() (triggered in leaveSession() onclick method) to destroy the connection on openvidu-server, we need another POST operation to let the backend know that certain user has left the session so it can update the collections with the active sessions and tokens.

In session.ejs template the "Leave session" button actually performs a POST operation to path /leave-session with a hidden form. Notice that when the user clicks the submit button, a POST operation will be triggered but also the leaveSession() method. First updates our backend. Second updates our openvidu-server.

<form action="/leave-session" method="post">
    <input style="display:none" name="sessionname" value="<%= sessionName %>"></input>
    <input style="display:none" name="token" value="<%= token %>"></input>
    <button id="buttonLeaveSession" class="btn btn-large btn-danger" type="submit" onclick="leaveSession()">
        Leave session</button>
</form>

In server.js we update the collections at /leave-session:

app.post('/leave-session', function (req, res) {
    // Check the user is logged ...

    // Retrieve params from POST body
    var sessionName = req.body.sessionname;
    var token = req.body.token;

    // If the session exists
    var mySession = mapSessionNameSession[sessionName];
    if (mySession) {
        mySession.getSessionId(function (sessionId) {
            var tokens = mapSessionIdTokens[sessionId];
            if (tokens) {
                var index = tokens.indexOf(token);

                // If the token exists
                if (index !== -1) {
                    // Token removed!
                    tokens.splice(index, 1);
                } else {
                    var msg = 'Problems in the app server: the TOKEN wasn\'t valid';
                    res.redirect('/dashboard');
                }
                if (mapSessionIdTokens[sessionId].length == 0) {
                    // Last user left: session must be removed
                    console.log(sessionName + ' empty!');
                    delete mapSessionNameSession[sessionName];
                }
                res.redirect('/dashboard');
            } else {
                var msg = 'Problems in the app server: the SESSIONID wasn\'t valid';
                res.redirect('/dashboard');
            }
        });
    } else {
        var msg = 'Problems in the app server: the SESSION does not exist';
        res.redirect('/dashboard');
    }

When the last user leaves the session delete mapSessionNameSession[sessionName] will be executed: this means the session is empty and that it is going to be closed. The sessionId and all token params associated to it will be invalidated.


At this point we have covered all the important code from the tutorial. With this scenario we have seen the most common use-case, but you can modify whatever you want to suit your needs. And remember that this is just one of the many possible approaches: you can implement your frontend and your backend as you want.

The only actual requirements are getting sessionId and token params from openvidu-server (by using one of the available clients or with the REST API) and using them along with openvidu-browser to connect your clients to the sessions.